Why complex cognition evolves? And how? What are the influences of the social and the ecological environments? A major goal of our research is to understand how cognitive processes (such as perception, learning, memory formation and decision-making) mediate adaptive behaviour in individuals, and their  interactions within groups and populations. Our work focuses on small brained insects which exhibit both an impressive range of cognitive capacities (concept learning, social cognition, advanced cooperation) and a unique spectrum of social forms (from solitary to eusocial life). Our approach combines behavioural experiments (in the lab and in the field) with simulations of computer models.